The Land Surface Temperature can be estimated or calculated using the Landsat 8 thermal bands. It simply requires applying a set of equations through a raster image calculator (ArcMap, ArcGIS Pro, QGIS).

The first step is to download a Landsat 8 image from a particular location, unzip it, and check certain information needed (within the metadata) to execute this procedure.

This tutorial shows how to calculate Land Surface Temperature (LST) using the Landsat 8 bands. In particular, band 10 as the thermal band, and bands 4 and 5 to calculate the Normal Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI).

To calculate the LST, use the USGS formulas (more information in the article Algorithm for Automated Mapping of Land Surface Temperature Using LANDSAT 8 Satellite Data), this example simply performs the calculations without going into detail about the fundamentals. The process is synthesized in six steps below:

**1.-** Calculation of TOA (Top of Atmospheric) spectral radiance.

**TOA (L) = M _{L} * Q_{cal} + A_{L}**

where:

M_{L} = Band-specific multiplicative rescaling factor from the metadata (RADIANCE_MULT_BAND_**x**, where x is the band number).

Q_{cal} = corresponds to band 10.

A_{L} = Band-specific additive rescaling factor from the metadata (RADIANCE_ADD_BAND_**x**, where x is the band number).

TOA = 0.0003342 * “Band 10” + 0.1

Therefore the equation must be solved using the Raster Calculator tool in ArcMap.

**2.-** TOA to Brightness Temperature conversion

**BT = (K _{2} / (ln (K_{1} / L) + 1)) − 273.15**

where:

K_{1} = Band-specific thermal conversion constant from the metadata (K1_CONSTANT_BAND_**x**, where x is the thermal band number).

K_{2} = Band-specific thermal conversion constant from the metadata (K2_CONSTANT_BAND_**x**, where x is the thermal band number).

L = TOA

Therefore, to obtain the results in Celsius, the radiant temperature is adjusted by adding the absolute zero (approx. -273.15°C).

BT = (1321.0789 / Ln ((774.8853 / “%TOA%”) + 1)) – 273.15

**3.-** Calculate the NDVI

**NDVI = (Band 5 – Band 4) / (Band 5 + Band 4)**

Note that the calculation of the NDVI is important because, subsequently, the proportion of vegetation (P_{v}), which is highly related to the NDVI, and emissivity (ε), which is related to the P_{v}, must be calculated.

NDVI = Float(Band 5 – Band 4) / Float(Band 5 + Band 4)

#### 4.- Calculate the proportion of vegetation P_{v}

**P _{v} = Square ((NDVI – NDVI_{min}) / (NDVI_{max} – NDVI_{min}))**

Usually the minimum and maximum values of the NDVI image can be displayed directly in the image (both in ArcGIS, QGIS, ENVI, Erdas Imagine), otherwise you must open the properties of the raster to get those values.

P_{v} = Square(“NDVI” – 0.216901) / (0.632267 – 0.216901)

**5.-** Calculate Emissivity ε

**ε = 0.004 * P _{v} + 0.986**

Simply apply the formula in the raster calculator, the value of 0.986 corresponds to a correction value of the equation.

**6.-** Calculate the Land Surface Temperature

**LST = (BT / (1 + (0.00115 * BT / 1.4388) * Ln(ε)))**

Finally apply the LST equation to obtain the surface temperature map.

As a result of the process developed, there is a map of the Land Surface Temperature, it should be noted that it is not equal to the air temperature.

Want to know new and other tutorial

Ok, you can stand in our updates

Its a Nice piece . can i get a pdf copy at this mail koroshillary12@gmail.com

You can get directly from link of paper

Why did you use 0.00115 but not 0.115? thank you for your answer

LST = (BT / (1 + (0.00115 * BT / 1.4388) * Ln(ε)))

It has been derived for the conversion for values to the Celsius values (6th equation in the article). It is also the wavelength of emitted radiance. Please check the article file carefully.

According to my understanding, it’s the wavelength of the band (band 10 and 11), so instead of 0.00115 the bands should be multiplied…

where can I get your paper?

Hello,

Why did u use 0.00115 in this equation

LST = (BT / (1 + (0.00115 * BT / 1.4388) * Ln(ε)))

Hello,

why there are two equation for calculating NDVI?

I need first “NDVI = Float(Band 5 – Band 4) / Float(Band 5 + Band 4)” for estimating NDVI min, max and “NDVI = (Band 5 – Band 4) / (Band 5 + Band 4)” as the first part into Pv equation?

Thank you

Use Float only in ArcMap, is only a one equation.

what about retrieval water vapor (w v) i thinks it’s important parameter with LSE ??

Any idea on working with LST of Landsat TM data?

Hi,

Is there any difference (other than the constant values) while calculating the land surface temperature from Landsat 5 TM?

Hello everyone, I use those equation but in the end LST map had only negative values, can anyone told me what’s the problem plz?

Where did we find these figures 0.00115 1.4388

Where did we find these figures 0.00115 * BT / 1.4388

Where did we find these figures 0.00115 * BT / 1.4388

(0.00115 * BT / 1.4388

Where did the values for emissivity came from?

In Calculating Emissivity ε Where did the numerical value 0.004 and 0.986 came from?

ε = 0.004 * Pv + 0.986

The approach is not 100% correct as it is neglecting thermal atmospheric transmission and path radiance

Hi there,

In the 5th step i.e. Calculate emissivity, why did you use 0.004?

This is really important for me. I would really appreciate your response.

Thanks!

Good tutorial.

In step 4. should the equation not be:

Pv = Square((“NDVI” – 0.216901) / (0.632267 – 0.216901)) instead of:

Pv = Square(“NDVI” – 0.216901) / (0.632267 – 0.216901) as shown.

Nice Presentation I will be happy if one can share a procedure for Latent Heat flux

Hello, its nice and informative. But there are some discrepancies and slight deviations from the main article (Avdan & Jovanovska, 2016).

1. Correction factor of 0.29 in calculating TOA.

2. Proportion of Vegetation (Pv) uses soil and vegetation NDVI value instead of max and min NDVI values.

3. Step 6 uses 0.00115 but article shows 0.0010895.

I too have a question: the min. NDVI value in the ArcMAP is shown as –0.216901, why have you consider +0.216901 instead of minus value?

Latent Heat flux procedure Some one please

What is the need of calculating vegetation properties in LST?

Hello.

what’s this algorithm name? because i want to write the name of this method in my paper.

Also, can i use this method for Landsat TM and ETM+ ?

Thanks a lot

Thanks for this tutorial. In your calculation of Pv, if the min NDVI value is negative, wouldn’t you be adding (subtracting a negative) it to the layer and the max? This is the only thing that wasn’t clear to me. It’s important, too because you could have a max of 1 and a min of -1 NDVI. In that case, the equation would be undefined. Am I off base on this? Thanks.