GIS Dictionary

B-tree

A tree data structure used for indexing data within a database or file system implementation. In a B-tree structure, data ...

band

A set of adjacent wavelengths or frequencies with a common characteristic. For example, visible light is one band ...

band ratio

A digital image-processing technique that enhances contrast between features by dividing a measure of reflectance for the ...

bandwidth

The amount of digital data that can be transferred over a computer network within a specified time period, usually ...

barrier

1 In network analysis, an entity that prevents flow from traversing a network edge or junction. 2 [ESRI ...

base tag

A text formatting tag that allows control of how the ESRI Maplex Labeling Engine places labels based on ...

baseline

1 An accurately surveyed line from which other lines or the angles between them are measured. 2 In ...

basemap

1 A map depicting background reference information such as landforms, roads, landmarks, and political boundaries, onto which other ...

batch file

A text file containing commands that is sent to the CPU to be executed automatically. A batch file allows ...

batch table

In ArcToolbox, a table which displays the input name, user-selected parameters, and output name, where applicable, for all ...

bathymetry

The science of measuring and charting the depths of water bodies to determine the topography of a lake bed ...

baud rate

In communications, the number of electrical cycles, or signals, transmitted per second. At lower transfer speeds the baud ...

Bayes’ theorem

A theorem developed by English mathematician Thomas Bayes (1702-1761) about conditional probability. It states that the probability of a given ...

bearing

The horizontal direction of a point in relation to another point, expressed as an angle from a known direction, usually ...

bearing method

In Survey Analyst for field measurements, one of two methods for computing the coordinate geometry traverse. The bearing ...

benchmark

1 A brass or bronze disk, set in a concrete base or similarly permanent structure, inscribed with a mark ...

best route

The route of least impedance between two or more locations, taking into account connectivity and travel restrictions such ...

big endian

A computer hardware architecture in which, within a multibyte numeric representation, the most significant byte has the lowest address ...

billboarding

A method for displaying graphics associated with features in a three-dimensional map display by posting them vertically ...

binary

In computing, having only two states, such as yes or no, on or off, true or false, or 0 ...

binding

In computer programming, the process by which a program discovers an object's methods and properties.

bit

The smallest unit of information within a computer. A bit can have one of two values, 1 and 0, ...

bitmap

An image format in which one or more bits represent each pixel on the screen. The number of bits per ...

BLOB

1 Acronym for binary large object. A large block of data, such as an image, a sound file, ...

block

In ArcGIS, a group of records in a compressed file geodatabase feature class or table that are stored ...

blocking

In ArcGIS, a geocoding indexing process that reduces the number of potential matches that need to be checked.

boundary

A line separating adjacent political entities, such as countries or districts; adjacent tracts of privately-owned land, such as parcels; ...

boundary effect

A problem created during spatial analysis, caused by arbitrary or discrete boundaries being imposed on spatial data representing nondiscrete or ...

boundary line

A division between adjacent political entities, tracts of private land, or geographic zones. Boundary lines may be imaginary lines, ...

break

In ArcGIS Network Analyst, an object used in vehicle routing problem (VRP) analysis. A break can be used ...

buffer

A zone around a map feature measured in units of distance or time. A buffer is useful for ...

bug

In computing, a flaw or error in a software program or hardware component that prevents it from performing the ...

build

1 In ArcGIS, the process of creating a network system. For geometric networks, this includes establishing connectivity, creating ...

build parcel

In Survey Analyst - Cadastral Editor, a cadastral fabric editing command that creates a parcel from construction lines ...

bus

A set of conductors that provide communications links between the various functional components of a computer, such as memory ...

byte

The smallest addressable unit of data storage within a computer, almost always equivalent to 8 bits and containing one ...